The University System In The Netherlands (Part 1) - Education In The Netherlands

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Thứ Bảy, 21 tháng 10, 2017

The University System In The Netherlands (Part 1)

Institutional Framework of Universities 
a) General framework
There are two types of higher education institutions in the Netherlands: universities and hogescholen providing applied science education, more professionally oriented. There are altogether 14 universities and 45 hogescholen.
b) Legal framework: how does the law organize universities?
The Law on Higher Education and Research (WHW) entered into force on 1 August 1993. It has profoundly changed the relationship between higher education institutions and the state. Previous legislation provided for an extensive planning and regulatory role for the government. The 1993 law gave universities greater autonomy in shaping their respective policies (they manage their internal organization and the recruitment of teaching staff). The state is only there to set a general framework and carry out ex-post controls. Universities are therefore free to decide, among other things, on the allocation of their budget (consisting mainly of public funds and tuition fees) and their curricula. The higher education system, however, remains essentially under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. Every two years, a plan for higher education and research is established (hoger onderwijs en onderzoek plan, HOOP) which is relayed by local administrations. The system is thus entirely decentralized.

Access to universities 
a) Conditions of admission to the University
Access to university requires a degree obtained after four years of study in secondary education, the vwo. Success in the first year of a hogescholen qualifies for registration at the university. Some students with diplomas certifying success in vocational secondary schools may also enroll in the university according to specific criteria and in certain streams only. Students 21 years of age or older who do not have the necessary qualifications may take an entrance examination called colloquium doctum.
The only limitation to this "open" system is a numerus clausus which concerns registration only in certain disciplines. In general, admission is free in Dutch universities.
b) Registration and tuition fees
Students pay a registration fee of € 1496 for the year 2006. This amount is set by law and is adjusted each year according to changes in household income. Students aged 30 or over pay different registration fees, calculated on other criteria and set by each institution. However, important changes have occurred: we mention them below.
c) Student aid
Since the 2000 Law (WSF) every student enrolled in a higher education institution receives assistance (The amount of the latter depends on the type of institution attended by the student and the distance from the parents' place of life, its amount ranges from 74 euros to 228 euros per month). This is actually a loan that is converted into a non-refundable scholarship only if the student achieves at least 50% of his exams. This assistance can be supplemented by an additional scholarship calculated according to the parental income (its amount is about 237 euros). In addition, there is a borrowing system capped at 253 euros per month, fully repayable, with an interest rate of 3.34% in 2004. Since 1995, loans can be granted to anyone who applies for them. whatever the income of his parents. Significant changes will be made in the fall of 2007. From this date, each student will receive assistance, corresponding to the registration fee for the duration of studies he intends to conduct. This assistance will be paid at the beginning of the studies. This reform, which is inspired by what is already being done in Denmark, aims to limit the work of students and to promote studies without repetition. In addition to this new support, students will retain other scholarships and loan facilities they already enjoy. In addition to student status, there are other benefits, including the free use of public transport throughout the country during the week, and reductions of between 40% and 50%. the weekend.

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